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Surat, QLD

Small rural service centre on the banks of the Balonne River

Surat is located on the on the banks of the Balonne River and, in recent times, has risen to prominence because of the vast oil reserves in the Surat Basin. Historically its primary function was as a rural service centre to the surrounding properties.

Location

Surat is located 81 km south of Roma and 447 km west of Brisbane.

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Origin of Name

The town was surveyed by James Burrowes in 1850. Burrowes named the town after his home, Surat in India, and named most of the streets after members of his family including Charlotte, William, Bertha and in the case of the main street, Burrowes.

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Things to See and Do

Cobb & Co Changing Station Museum
Located at 62 Burrowes Street the Cobb & Co Changing Station Museum was opened in 2016. It is a free museum located at the original site of the Cobb & Co Store where coach travellers and goods were dropped off in Surat. The museum houses an exhibition depicting historic lifestyles. It also houses a 14-seater Cobb & Co coach, a 25,000 litre freshwater aquarium, a social history museum and the local art gallery. For more information tel: (07) 4626 5136.
It is worth noting why Cobb & Co loom so large in the history of Surat: ""Fred (Tommy) Thompson was the last man to drive the Cobb & Co Coach from Surat to its final destination at Yuleba in 1924. It was to be the last Cobb and Co (stage)coach run in Australia. On Thursday morning the 14th August 1924, with the ground being quite muddy, Fred took the reins of Coach No 141, for the last time and drove the 75 km between Surat and Yuleba. The following Saturday Fred did the return run in a seven-seater International truck."

Shire Hall
The Shire Hall, a wonderful and unusual timber building which stands on the corner of Cordeial and William Streets, was designed by Harry Marks, opened in 1929 and  subsequently been Heritage Listed. The register explains that "Harry Marks was an innovative and idiosyncratic designer who introduced a number of his inventions into buildings he designed, including the patented Austral window. On a number of occasions Marks designed windows especially for a commissioned building and the windows in the Warroo hall are a distinctive feature of the design. They pivot to improve ventilation, a particular interest of Marks'." Its importance is noted as "The Warroo Shire Hall is a fine and intact example of a timber shire hall of its era, catering for both administrative and social functions in its design. It has rooms for shire offices, with a large hall, stage, projection booth and small kitchen to the rear. Its toilets and separate supper room are now modern structures" For more detailed information check out https://environment.ehp.qld.gov.au/heritage-register/detail/?id=602612. It has the name Alex J Simpson on the clock face rather than the numerals measuring the hours.

Astor Picture Theatre
Located at 77 Burrowes Street and listed on the Queensland Heritage Register because "The Astor is rare as one of the very few early picture theatres remaining in Queensland that have not been adapted for other uses. Alterations have been made over the years to improve its function as a picture theatre, rather than to accommodate changed use. It retains two early projectors in the bio box." The entry adds that "Surat Pictures Limited was formed in 1925 when W Kitson sought building approval for the construction of a picture theatre in the main street of Surat. This was an open-air picture theatre comprising an earth-floored enclosure, a canvas screen at the rear and a shallow building along the street frontage containing a foyer with a projection booth above it. This type of structure was the cheapest and simplest kind of purpose built film venue and was not uncommon at the time in the warmer parts of Australia, though many of them were later roofed over." For more detailed information check out https://environment.ehp.qld.gov.au/heritage-register/detail/?id=602352.

Freedom Tree
Located in the memorial park on the corner of Marcus & Charlotte Streets, this simple sculpture of a tree has photographs of those people from Surat who served Australia in various wars. It was originally located outside the local RSL but, in 2015 it was moved to its current location at Memorial Park. The inscription reads: "The Freedom Tree is a community memorial dedicated to honour the gallant young men and women from Surat, who enlisted in any theatre of war.  It was inspired by a poem called "They Fought To Keep Me Free", written by local devoted RSL supporter Jillian Ward, who then collected the soldiers` photographs. The tree`s photographic panels represent sections of leaves and the design allows the panels to move and shimmer in the sun, as many eucalypt tree leaves do.  The solid outline serves to envelop the servicemen and servicewomen, and is presented in bright blue to resonate the RSL`s implication of a willingness to render assistance to any fellow servicemen and servicewomen under the blue sky." For more information check out http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/multiple/display/107433-the-freedom-tree.

River Walk
There is a park on the banks of the Balonne River which is a pleasant spot for a picnic. It is part of a 2 km walk (it takes around 45 minutes) along the Balonne River which has footbridges, viewing platforms over the river, a water fountain and, beyond the bridge over the river, there is an Aboriginal interpretative shelter which tells the story of local Aboriginal families. The river is also home to impressive birdlife. There is a detailed, downloadable brochure (complete with a map) at http://www.mymaranoa.org.au/residents/sports-recreation/Documents/Trails%20of%20the%20Maranoa.pdf.

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Other Attractions in the Area

Surat Basin Oil and Gas Field
Located 80 km south of the town Bounty Oil and Gas NL operate the Surat oil field. On their website they explain: "Bounty acquired 100% of ATP 470P (Formosa Downs and Redcap) which contains the Weribone East gas accumulation discovered in the Triassic age Rewan Formation.  The main target in this permit is gas/condensate in the Tinowan Formation Sands in a similar structural setting to the Churchie Gas Field to the north. The Wallabella Coal is over 16 metres thick in this area, is very gassy and offers unconventional potential similar to the Farawell Prospect in ATP 754P Southern Surat basin ... Hydrocarbons in this part of the Surat Basin are generated in the underlying Bowen Basin Permian sequence and are liquids rich.  Oil is also trapped in the Triassic age Showgrounds Sandstone and in the Jurassic Age Evergreen Formation." It is estimated that the "potential recoverable resources" are between 200,000 and 300,000 barrels." For more on the geology of the area check out https://web.archive.org/web/20090207014814/http://www.ga.gov.au/oceans/ea_Surat.jsp.

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History

* Prior to the arrival of Europeans the area was home to the Mandandanji Aboriginal people.

* The area around Surat was first explored by Sir Thomas Mitchell in 1846 when, on his fourth expedition, he passed through the region while attempting to find an overland route from Boree to Port Essington in the Northern Territory. 

* The town was surveyed by James Burrowes in 1850. 

* A Court of Petty Sessions was established in the town in 1859. That same year saw the building of a local pub.

* Land in the town was offered for sale in 1863.

* A Universal church was opened in 1870.

* A school was opened in the town in 1874.

* A Jockey Club was formed in 1878.

* In 1879 Cobb & Co began servicing Surat from St George.

* In 1911 a hospital was opened.

* The last Cobb & Co coach from Yuleba to Surat ran in 1924.

* By 1925 the town had an open air picture theatre.

* The Shire Hall was opened in 1929.

* Reticulated water reached the town in 1951.

* In 1953 electricity was connected to the town.

* In 1964 a Secondary School was created in the town.

* A Public Library opened in the Cobb & Co Changing Station in 1997.

* In 2011 the Balonne River broke its banks and flooded the town.

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Visitor Information

Surat Visitor Information Centre, Cobb & Co Changing Station, 62 Burrowes Street, tel: (07) 4626 5136.

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Useful Websites

There is a brief overview of the town at https://www.queensland.com/en-au/destination-information/surat.

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